Energy consumption within the transport sector currently relies nearly entirely on fossil fuels, particularly oil. Due to increasingly competitive renewable energy production costs in the power and heat sectors, fossil fuels are being increasingly replaced within these areas, whereas CO2 emissions from transport continue to grow. Greater attention is therefore now turning to the transport sector, where increased focus on energy efficiency and shifts to liquid biofuels, biogas and electro fuels, and electrification all represent viable means of reducing CO2 emissions from transport. These shifts also strengthen links between sectors, in particular electrification and electro fuels with the remaining energy sector, but also biogas with the energy and agricultural sectors  

Ea Energy Analyses has worked on numerous projects involving transformation of the transport sector, often integrating results from power and heat sector models such as Balmorel, with transport sector models such as PETRA. 

Ea Energy Analyses’ PETRA model is designed to undertake thorough scenario analyses of the transport sector’s energy consumption, CO2 emissions and pollutants towards 2050. This includes impact assessments of changes in key developments (i.e. vehicle price, energy efficiency, total travel demand, etc.) and outlining paths to reach political targets. The model includes data for passenger cars, vans, trucks, buses and motorcycles, and factors in projections of transport demand, technology specifications, lifetime of the vehicle fleet and the distribution according to fuel and technology type for new vehicle sales. The economic module of the model can be used to undertake socioeconomic assessments of scenarios. PETRA is developed in Excel, making it easy to access results and assumptions. 

Completed projects

The list of projects below illustrates the types of projects we have been working on.


Electrification of the Agersø and Omø ferries

Ea has given recommendations for the charging infrastructure in relation to the electrification of the Agersø III and Omø ferries. The work has been carried out for Slagelse..

28 February 2023


Ea participates in Energifonden’s Summer School

Every summer Energifonden (the Energy Fund) carries out their Summer School event for participants from government bodies, municipalities, interest organisations, energy companies, advisors, NGO’s etc., about the development..

31 August 2022


Climate impact of holiday traveling

In this project, Ea Energy Analyses investigated emission factors for different of modes of transport, for use when calculating the total climate impact of a journey. In addition..

31 January 2020

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions towards 2030 – possibilities and costs

Ea Energy Analyses has assisted the climate partnership for the energy and supply sector with an analysis of several initiatives for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Denmark towards..

31 March 2020

AFI reporting

The AFI directive (AFI stands for “alternative fuels infrastructure”) was passed in the EU in 2014. As a result of this, the member states must send in documentation..

31 January 2020

Climate plan Helsingør Municipality 2045

During 2018 and 2019, Ea Energy Analyses assisted Helsingør Municipality in developing an action and climate plan for the municipality towards 2030, based on a wish for a..

18 March 2020

Roadmap for electrification in Denmark

Electrification is increasingly seen as a crucial prerequisite for achieving the Danish climate ambitions of at least 55% renewable energy in 2030 and independence of fossil fuels in..

29 February 2020

Nordic Clean Energy Progress

The five Nordic countries – Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden – have some of the most ambitious energy and climate policies in the world. Despite this, achieving..

19 June 2020


Biogas for heavy transport

In this project, Ea Energy Analyses carried out an evaluation of the options for, and consequences of, putting vans and lorries fuelled by biogas and diesel on equal..

5 July 2019

Transport analysis for climate plan

In order to determine the effects of a variety of potential political initiatives in the road transport sector, Ea Energy Analyses carried out impact assessments and private economy..

31 January 2019


Mobility as a Service and Greener Transportation Systems

The Nordic countries are committed to reducing CO2 and local emissions, and to creating a greener transport system. Emerging digitalised mobility solutions, such as multimodal Mobility as a Service..

31 October 2018


Personal vehicle driving patterns

In order to better understand the future demand for gas and electricity from transport, was interested in investigating when driving gas and electric vehicles will become competitive..

31 January 2017

EU Green Transport Roadmap

The EU has a number of collective environmental targets for the years 2030 and 2050. If these targets are to be reached, and particularly if they are to..

28 February 2017


Biogas and other renewable fuels for heavy transport

The government’s long-term goal is that Denmark must be independent of fossil fuels by 2050. The report “Energy Scenarios to 2020, 2035 and 2050” presented four possible options..

31 December 2016


International incentives and measures to promote electric vehicles

Within the program ”Forsøgsordning for elbiler” funded by the Danish Energy Agency, Ea Energy Analyses has carried out a project on ‘International incentives and measures to promote electric..

30 January 2015

Scenarios for Green Transport

Denmark has a long-term goal to be independent of fossil fuels by 2050. This has consequences for the transport sector, which is primarily based on oil. At the..

30 November 2015


CPH Clean Cab

The transport sector is one of the biggest challenges in making the energy system independent of fossil fuels. A number of studies indicate that electric vehicles will constitute..

31 January 2014

Transport: Energy consumption and CO2 emission towards 2035

Ea Energy Analyses conducted an analysis on behalf of the Danish Oil Industry Association, concerning future fuel consumption and CO2 emissions within the transportation sector. Scenarios towards 2035 for..

31 March 2014


Prospects for gas in the transport sector

Ea Energy Analyses conducted a scenario analysis of the use of gas in the transport sector. The scenario analysis described a possible development for the use of gas..

31 October 2013

Future European drivetrain scenarios

On behalf of Toyota Motor Europe, Ea Energy Analyses has investigated potential drivetrain technology scenarios that can be expected up to 2050 for personal vehicles within the EU...

31 December 2013


Electric taxis

In this preliminary appraisal, a fleet project involving the purchase and demonstration of 30 electric taxis was prepared for the Danish taxi company “4×35”. As part of the..

31 March 2012


EDISON - introduction of electric vehicles in the electricity market

Ea Energy Analyses participated in the EDISON project (Electric vehicles in a Distributed and Integrated market using Sustainable energy and Open Networks) during the period of Jan. 2009..

31 March 2011

CO2 emissions from future passenger vehicles in the Nordic countries

In January 2011 Ea Energy Analyses completed a project on CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles carried out for the Danish Petroleum Association and Norsk Petroleumsinstitutt. The analyses mainly focused..

1 January 2011

Evaluation of the system value of electric vehicles

Ea Energy Analyses has studied the current and future value of electric vehicles to the electricity system. With a focus on electric vehicle owners in Germany, the UK..

30 September 2011

Roadmap for the use of gas in the transport sector

Ea Energy Analyses has conducted a roadmap for the use of gas in the transport sector in Denmark for HMN Naturgas. The use of gas in the transport..

31 October 2011

Scenarios for energy consumption in the Norwegian transport sector

On behalf of Norsk Petroleumsinstitutt, Ea Energy Analyses has carried out an analysis of the possible development of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the Norwegian transport sector..

31 October 2011

Long-term European energy policy trends and challenges for transport

Energy and transport regulation is still to a large extent a national issue, for example taxation of cars (EVs and traditional cars) and support schemes for electricity supply..

31 March 2011

Scenarios for energy consumption in the Danish transport sector

On behalf of the Danish Petroleum Association (EOF), Ea Energy Analyses has made an analysis of the possible development of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the Danish..

31 May 2011


Personal vehicle CO2 emissions

On behalf of the Danish Petroleum Association (EOF), Ea Energy Analyses undertook a study of the CO2 emissions from five types of personal vehicles: Gasoline, diesel, hybrid, plug-in hybrid,..

31 July 2009