Balmorel: Power system model

Ea Energy Analyses is the leading company in commercialised engagements on the Balmorel model and Ea has developed many new Balmorel functionalities. 

We use the model to support various analyses of large energy systems with emphasis on electricity and the combined heat and power sectors.

Ea has worked with the Balmorel model in numerous projects, for instance covering 18 European countries, 14 African countries, China, Mexico, Indonesia and Vietnam. The model has also been used for regional analyses, e.g. of district heating systems in Copenhagen, Aarhus and Odense. 

We have expert qualifications within developing, implementing, and using the Balmorel model, which enables us to assist with:

  • using the Balmorel model as an energy planning tool 
  • coordinating and performing data collection
  • creating customised model versions for specific needs
  • making scenarios that outline relevant future paths 
  • creating automatised tools for result presentations, e.g. geographic visualisations 
  • facilitating and conducting model training and workshops - both face to face or as e-learning
  • combining Balmorel with other models (such as PSS/E or Sisyfos)

Short introduction to the Balmorel model

Optimal dispatch

Each generator is represented with capacity (MW), fuel, efficiency and costs (operating costs and start/stop costs).

The model finds the optimal dispatch of each generator – given the available transmission capacity between areas. The optimal dispatch represents the lowest total costs for the entire model area.

Optimal investments

The model finds future optimal investments, as it chooses technology, capacity and locations. Refurbishments or shutdown of existing capacity can be part of the analysis.

Limitations of resources (e.g. biomass) and different geographical conditions (for wind and sunlight especially) can be taken into account. The model makes decisions about investments while fulfilling requirements about CO2, renewable energy, firm capacity and special policies or goals.


The model is designed to work with multiple scenarios, e.g. with more or less renewable energy or with variations of the parameters for electricity demand, fuel prices, CO2 prices etc.

Efficient tools (databases and Excel sheets) have been developed to manage data input and to show results of multiple scenarios.

Open source

The model is open source and can be used for free.

Our Balmorel user guide is available for download here.

You can also take a look at our many projects using the Balmorel model on the list below.


The model BalmorelLite was based on Balmorel. It is used for estimating wind integration costs in different types of energy systems and thereby getting a qualified input to least-cost-of-energy calculations. Other outputs are data on the production pattern of a typical week and duration curves.

In addition to an assessment of integration costs, the model also provides information on the resulting changes in the CO2 emissions of the system.

Read more about the model on its website

On going

The list of projects below illustrates the types of projects we are working on.

North Sea Wind Power Hub

Rapid development of wind and solar power as well as the increasing power demand for electrification are central elements in the EU Commission’s visions for a 55% reduction..

On going

Pakistan long-term energy planning

Ea Energy Analyses is continuing the work to strengthen capacity within the Pakistani energy authorities for long-term energy planning with variable renewable energy (VRE). Together with Energinet and..

31 December 2024

Modelling and capacity development in Mexico

Ea has supported the Mexican National Institute on Ecology and Climate Change (INECC) with modelling activities and capacity building, focusing on the energy system model Balmorel. After signing..

30 June 2024

Post 2030 Baltic electricity market

The Baltic Sea region could become a large source for renewable generation, including from offshore wind. While the potential wind resource is favourable, most of the Baltic Sea..

29 February 2024

Framework contracts on energy analyses

As a part of a consortium with COWI, Viegand Maagøe and the Technical University of Denmark, Ea Energy Analyses is contributing with analyses for projects within five framework..

17 August 2024

Energy masterplan for the West Nusa Tenggara province in Indonesia

The West Nusa Tenggara (NTB) province, with main islands Lombok and Sumbawa, has pledged a course of having 60% renewable energy in Lombok’s electricity system by 2030, 100%..

31 December 2023

Balmorel modelling and training in Egypt

The Danish government has initiated a government-to-government cooperation with Egypt on the integration of variable renewable energy (VRE) in the power sector. This has the objective of accelerating..

31 December 2023

Completed projects

The list of projects below illustrates the types of projects we have been working on.


Danida Balmorel course 2023

In August 2023, the Technical University of Denmark conducted a four-week course on the power system model Balmorel. They partnered with Ea Energy Analyses and Energy Modelling Lab..

8 September 2023

Role of demand flexibility in the European power system

Ea Energy Analyses prepared a study for Danfoss to examine the impact of demand-side flexibility in the future European power system. A long-term analysis was conducted for 2025,..

31 October 2023

Model calculations for the electricity price outlook of Green Power Denmark

Green Power Denmark has published “Elpris Outlook 2023” (electricity price outlook), which was also issued in 2018, 2019, and 2021. The electricity outlook is a recurrent publication from..

31 July 2023

Long-term energy planning in Kenya

In 2022, the Danish Energy Agency (DEA) and the Kenyan Ministry of Energy (MoE) initiated a government-to-government cooperation as a “Strategic Sector Cooperation” (SSC) programme, which will run..

31 July 2023

Coordinated modelling and planning of net-zero carbon infrastructure

China aims to peak their carbon emissions by 2030, and to reach carbon neutrality by 2060. To achieve this, a transformation of energy infrastructure, planning and regulation is..

30 November 2023

Balmorel training and support for long term planning in Ethiopia

In 2020, the Danish government initiated a cooperation with the Ethiopian government on long-term energy planning and modelling. The aim of the partnership was to build capacity at..

13 July 2023

Eskom capacity building and benchmark study

As a part of the Energy Partnership Programme between South Africa and Denmark, Ea Energy Analyses carried out Balmorel training for the Eskom modelling group. The objective was..

3 March 2023

Power system modelling for MEMR and DG Electricity

The Indonesian government has a strong focus on reaching their target of 23% renewable energy (RE) in the energy system by 2025. There is an understanding that the..

26 April 2023


Modelling of green hydrogen hub

The Green Hydrogen Hub Denmark (GHH), a consortium comprising the three partners Eurowind Energy A/S, Gas Storage Denmark, and Corre Energy, aims to build and operate the first..

15 August 2022

Capacity building and energy modelling in Pakistan

In 2020, Pakistan approved a policy for renewable energy, which includes the targets of having 20% renewables (up from 4%) in the energy mix in 2025, and to..

31 December 2022

Danida Balmorel course 2022

In August – September 2022, the Technical University of Denmark conducted a four-week course on the power system model Balmorel. They partnered with Ea Energy Analyses and Energy Modelling Lab..

30 September 2022

Scenario analyses and Balmorel training in Türkiye

Since 2017, Türkiye and Denmark have cooperated through the Strategic Sector Cooperation programme on developing relevant policies, strategies and solutions to enable a low carbon transition of the..

31 December 2022

Preparations for Vietnam Energy Outlook 2021

Ea Energy Analyses has participated in the preparation of the 2021 Energy Outlook Report (EOR) for Vietnam. The report is an important tool for the energy planning in..

31 May 2022

Electricity scenarios for the Tidstegen model

IVL Swedish Environmental Institute has developed a model called Tidstegen for analysis of energy consumption in buildings and to calculate the climate effects of changing the consumption. The..

31 January 2022

Pit thermal energy storage in Roskilde

In this project Ea Energy Analyses participated in a pre-feasibility study on whether investing in a pit thermal energy storage (PTES) in Roskilde would be financially attractive. The..

1 March 2022

IEA Wind Task 26 - Cost of Wind Energy

Representing Denmark, Ea Energy Analyses was a participant of the IEA Wind Task 26 – Cost of Wind Energy. It is an international forum for exchange of knowledge..

1 March 2022

Energy Country Programs and Projects, ECPP

Under the auspices of the ‘Energy Country Program and Project’, the Danish Energy Agency provides technical assistance combined with policy dialogue in promotion of renewable energy, energy efficiency,..

31 December 2022


Balmorel application and training for Egyptian participants

The governments of Denmark and Egypt are working together with the objective of accelerating the green transition in Egypt through exchanging experiences in energy system planning and operational..

7 December 2021

The role of solar power in the Danish energy system

Meeting the Danish climate targets requires a significant electrification of the heating, industry and transport sectors, and electricity for PtX plants, which are to produce green fuels. In..

30 June 2021

Danida Balmorel course 2021

In August 2021, the Technical University of Denmark conducted a four-week course on the power system model Balmorel. For this course they partnered with Ea Energy Analyses and..

10 September 2021

Analysis of the Southern Swedish electricity grid

Ea Energy Analyses has mapped the challenges in the Southern Swedish electricity grid as they appear today, along with the development that has taken place in the last..

30 June 2021

Scenario analyses for the future supply of district heating in the capital area

As a part of the project “The future supply of district heating in the capital area 2050” (FFH50), Ea Energy Analyses has done calculations on scenarios for the..

1 September 2021

Modelling the Indian power system

India has experienced a significant economic growth in recent decades, which influences the country’s electricity demand. Energy planning is required to ensure cost effectiveness while expanding the generation..

1 October 2021

Energy planning and modelling in Ethiopia

The Danish government has initiated a government-to-government cooperation with Ethiopia on long-term energy planning and modelling. The objective of the assignment is to support and follow up on..

30 April 2021


Value of hydrogen-based electricity storage

Ea Energy Analyses has analysed the potential value of the Green Hydrogen Hub (GHH) concept for Gas Storage Denmark. The concept combines electrolysers, hydrogen storage and compressed-air energy..

31 December 2020

Balmorel training and open model update

In this project, Ea Energy Analyses carried out two training courses on the power system model Balmorel for South African Power Utility company and TSO Eskom and the..

31 October 2020

Balmorel training for CTR and VEKS

Ea Energy Analyses has extensive experience in using, developing, and training others in the power systems model Balmorel. In this project, Ea held a course in the model..

31 December 2020

An estimate of the costs of reducing carbon emissions

In this project, Ea Energy Analyses aided DØRS (the secretariat for the Danish Economic Councils) in investigating how the government’s 70% goal can be reached in the most..

31 August 2020

Use of surplus heat from data centre in Høje Taastrup

This project was about setting up a heat pump system connected to a future data centre in Høje Taastrup. The heat pump would be using surplus heat generated..

31 December 2020

Energy scenarios for Hainan Clean Energy Island

The Hainan Province in the South China Sea has a growing energy demand, and currently relies mainly on non-renewable energy sources. The Chinese government has chosen the region..

31 October 2020

Balmorel modelling support for the Power Development Plan 8

Ea Energy Analyses is supporting the Danish Energy Agency in projects as part of the Energy Partnership Programme between Viet Nam and Denmark. This project is part of..

31 October 2020

Expansion of the Balmorel-TIMES Database

The project is part of the Energy Partnership Programme between Viet Nam and Denmark – Development Engagement 1, a cooperation between the Danish Energy Agency (DEA) and the..

5 June 2020

Danida Balmorel course 2020

Ea Energy Analyses delivered a course on the Balmorel model, together with the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), to 25 participants coming from Indonesia, Ethiopia and Egypt. In..

30 June 2020

Energy modelling in South Africa

Ea Energy Analyses was a consultant for DEA (the Danish Energy Agency) in this modelling study. The objective was to study the potential impact of enhanced thermal power plant..

30 June 2020

Offshore wind and infrastructure

On behalf of Ørsted, Ea Energy Analyses has carried out a study on synergies between substantial offshore wind power buildout and the increasing need for a transmission grid..

1 April 2020

Roadmap for electrification in Denmark

Electrification is increasingly seen as a crucial prerequisite for achieving the Danish climate ambitions of at least 55% renewable energy in 2030 and independence of fossil fuels in..

29 February 2020


Regional Energy Modelling in four Indonesian Provinces

Ea Energy Analyses has developed three Energy Outlook reports covering the Indonesian provinces of North Sulawesi, Gorontalo, South Kalimantan and Riau. Each province is found to have a large potential..

31 December 2019

Danida Balmorel course 2019

Ea Energy Analyses delivered a four-week course on the Balmorel model, together with the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), to 27 participants coming from Indonesia and India. In..

31 May 2019

Consultant support to Indonesian government agencies in energy modelling

The Danish government has initiated a new stage of ‘government to government’ cooperation with Indonesia on energy and energy efficiency. The objective of the Strategic Sector Cooperation (SSC)..

31 December 2019

PSS/E grid modelling in Vietnam

The objective of the project was to extract insights and improve the Balmorel power system modelling by linking the PSS/E grid model with the Balmorel model. The PSS/E..

31 May 2019

Introduction to the Balmorel model for analysts

Ea Energy Analyses organised a five-day course on the power system model Balmorel with a focus on energy planning and analysis of the power sector in developing countries...

31 January 2019

Data centres and the need for renewable energy

A number of data centres are planned or are under construction in Denmark, and the Danish Energy Agency expects them to have an electricity usage corresponding to about..

30 April 2019

Regional energy modelling in Lombok

As part of the engagement between Denmark and Indonesia under the Strategic Sector Cooperation, the Danish Energy Agency and the National Energy Council chose Lombok as a pilot..

31 January 2019

Wind modelling for Balmorel

The characteristics of wind power production have changed significantly during the last couple of years, as wind turbines grow larger and the ratio of swept area to generator..

30 June 2019

Energy scenarios for Vietnam

The use of electricity is increasing rapidly in Vietnam – and the supply is today primarily based on coal. In a number of projects, energy scenarios for Vietnam..

30 September 2019

Mexico Renewable Energy Outlook 2018

In close cooperation with the Department of General Planning, SENER, the UNAM/SIMISE team and the Danish Energy Agency, Ea Energy Analyses have written a report to produce input..

31 May 2019

Offshore wind in the Baltic Sea

In a recent report for the European Commission, Ea Energy Analyses investigated the potential for offshore wind in the Baltic Sea together with COWI and Thema Consulting group..

30 June 2019


How can the Faroe Islands power system become 100% supplied by renewables?

On behalf of the Faroese power company SEV, the project undertook a number of analyses of the Faroese electricity system. The project outlined economic paths for reaching a..

1 January 2018

Consolidation of Balmorel modelling in Indonesia

Indonesia and Denmark are cooperating through an Environmental Support Programme (ESP), where the third phase ran from 2013 to 2017. The overarching objective of ESP3 is to support..

31 January 2018

Power system aspects of India

In this project, Ea Energy Analyses provided a knowledge basis on relevant power system aspects of India for the Danish Energy Agency, to enable the DEA to engage..

31 December 2018

Scenario analysis of investment strategy for Fjernvarme Fyn

The distribution of district heating in the Odense area is today mainly based on heat production from four production units. One of these is Blok 7 at Fynsværket,..

31 August 2018


The use of gas in the energy system has a number of advantages. It is an efficient and highly flexible fuel to utilise. Characterised by high ramping rates,..

31 December 2018


Analyses of renewable energy targets for 2030

Ea Energy Analyses did an analysis for The Danish Council on Climate Change on how future goals for renewable energy can be met at lowest cost. The study..

30 November 2017

Wind energy resources in Vietnam

The objective of the study was to estimate the land-based wind resource potential in Vietnam using GIS analysis, taking into account wind resource quality, topography, land use limitations,..

31 May 2017

Energy scenarios for Mexico

Mexico has ambitious goals in terms of expansion of clean energy within the electricity sector and reducing national CO2 emissions. The objective of this project is to strengthen..

30 June 2017

Balmorel model implementation in Vietnam

Ea Energy Analyses was involved in an initiative on planning of renewable energy integration in the Vietnamese electricity sector within a cooperation framework between Vietnam and the Danish..

30 April 2017


Energy modelling in Indonesia

Indonesia is working to develop and strengthen the current system of energy modeling in preparation of scenario analysis for 2050 with the aim of achieving a cost-effective breakthrough..

31 December 2016

Renewable energy scenarios in Mexico

Mexico has ambitious goals in terms of expansion of clean energy within the electricity sector and reducing national CO2 emissions. The objective of this project was to strengthen the..

31 August 2016

Electricity price forecast for Skellefteå Kraft

Using the electricity market model Balmorel, Ea Energy Analyses assisted Skellefteå Kraft (Swedish power company) with a long-term forecast of spot market prices and capture prices for selected..

30 November 2016

Biogas and other renewable fuels for heavy transport

The government’s long-term goal is that Denmark must be independent of fossil fuels by 2050. The report “Energy Scenarios to 2020, 2035 and 2050” presented four possible options..

31 December 2016

Wind power integration in Egypt

What is needed if Egypt is to seriously invest in wind power? This project focused on the possibilities of having 7,200 MW wind power in the Egyptian power..

30 June 2016

South African Interconnector Study

The Danish Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building has entered a co-operation with South Africa, with the purpose of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gasses by increasing the..

31 January 2016

Mexican-Danish energy program

Ea Energy Analyses, alongside COWI, UNEP-DTU, SBi, Viegand Maagøe, and CCAP, was involved in the provision of Project Support Facility (PSF) for the Mexican-Danish climate change mitigation and energy..

30 April 2016

Regional Electricity Market Design

Do current electricity market designs ensure a sufficient electricity supply at all times? This topic is currently the subject of intense debate across Europe, and several major countries..

30 June 2016


ENSYMORA - developing models for analysis of energy systems

Ea Energy Analyses was part of the ENSYMORA project, which was a comprehensive Danish research project aiming to develop and improve methods and models used for energy systems..

30 September 2015

Integration of geothermal heat in district heating systems

In corporation with the Geothermal Company of the Danish District Heating Association and COWI, Ea Energy Analyses carried out a project analysing the potential for exploiting geothermal heat..

30 September 2015

Development of a regional master plan in Eastern Africa

Eastern African Power Pool, EAPP, is comprised of 10 member states: Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and the DRC. South Sudan and Djibouti have..

30 April 2015

Scenario-based analyses for Vietnam

Ea Energy Analyses is involved in an initiative on planning of renewable energy integration in the Vietnamese electricity sector, one of the activities undertaken within the cooperation between..

31 October 2015

Analyses of regional district heating system development

Many municipalities in Region Zealand and The Capital Region of Denmark work with strategic energy planning and since the energy systems in the municipalities are closely related, there..

31 December 2015

Scenarios for Green Transport

Denmark has a long-term goal to be independent of fossil fuels by 2050. This has consequences for the transport sector, which is primarily based on oil. At the..

30 November 2015

District heating in Odense

The district heating system in Odense is the third largest in Denmark and is today supplied with heat from different sources. Fynsværket CHP delivers district heating with one..

30 April 2015

Viking Link and other initiatives for integration of wind power

In this project, Ea Energy Analyses has explored several initiatives to integrate wind power such as heat pumps, immersion heaters, and an electric connection between Denmark and England..

31 December 2015


Adapting the capacity for waste incineration

In the resource strategy “Denmark without waste” from November 2013, the Danish government have proposed to increase the degree to which waste gets recycled and to modernise the..

30 April 2014

System adequacy in Lithuania

Ea Energy Analysis has carried out a system adequacy and reliability study for the Lithuanian National Control Commission for Prices and Energy (NCCPE / VKEKK) in association with..

30 April 2014

Balmorel - Support and help desk service

Ea Energy Analyses provided ad hoc assistance in developing and using the Balmorel model for analysis and development of the power system in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The..

31 December 2014

Electricity trade between Estonia/Latvia and Russia

In this analysis, the power market model Balmorel was used to quantify the consequences of allowing electricity trade between Estonia/Latvia and Russia. The data for Russia was updated..

30 April 2014


Estonian long-term energy scenarios 2030 and 2050

Ea Energy Analyses has been assisting Elering – the Estonian system operator – to identify and provide quantified analysis of long-term energy scenarios for Estonia in the context..

31 August 2013

Danish Economic Council: Environmental and economic calculations using Balmorel

Ea Energy Analyses provides calculations and analyses made with the Balmorel model as well as advice on various energy-related issues to the Danish Economic Councils. The calculations and..

28 February 2013

Scenarios for low carbon transition and RE development in China

In cooperation with China National Renewable Energy Centre (CNREC), the Japanese National Institute of Environmental Studies, and the Danish Energy Agency, Ea Energy Analyses developed energy scenarios for..

31 July 2013


Training in cross-border trade for the Eastern Africa Power Pool (EAPP)

Recognising the potential benefit from developing a regional power pool, energy ministers from eight Eastern African countries have signed an inter-governmental Memorandum of Understanding for the establishment of..

31 May 2011

Heat storage in Nordhavn

In cooperation with Copenhagen Energy (now HOFOR), COWI and Ea Energy Analyses have investigated the value of establishing a large heat storage in the northern part of Copenhagen..

30 April 2011

China: Balmorel energy modelling training seminars

In March 2011, Ea Energy Analyses conducted a series of training seminars regarding energy modelling using the Balmorel model for the State Grid Energy Research Institute (SGERI) and..

31 March 2011

Interaction between wind turbines and heat pumps

Ea Energy Analyses and COWI in cooperation with Copenhagen Energy (now HOFOR) have carried out an analysis of the value of large heat pumps in interaction with wind..

30 November 2011


Congestion management in the Nordic electricity market

The project focused on the technical and economic consequences of the present congestion management in the Nordic electricity market and the most important alternatives to the present scheme...

31 March 2008


System costs related to wind power

In spring 2007, Ea Energy Analyses carried out a number of analyses for the Secretariat of the Danish Economic Council (formerly the Environmental Assessment Institute) quantifying the advantages..

30 June 2007

Impact of CO2 quota allocation to new entrants in the electricity market

The study shows that allocation to new entrants in the electricity market the way that it is currently practised in the ETS will distort the market and have..

31 December 2007


Steps for improved congestion management and cost allocation for transit

In this project, a report was prepared for the Nordic Electricity Market Group in the Nordic Council of Ministers. The report presents a number of quantitative analyses focusing..

31 December 2006

Analyses of Demand Response in Denmark

What is the value of demand response? In this project, the Balmorel model has been used to calculate the value of demand response in a Monte Carlo set-up,..

31 October 2006

The future of district heating in the Greater Copenhagen area

Ea Energy Analyses has made a study of the future of district heating in the Greater Copenhagen area, including the use of waste, biomass and geothermal energy for heat..

31 May 2006