District heating plays an important role in a future energy system with a large share of renewable energy. Today, the thermal production of combined heat and power ensures high energy efficiency in the production, while minimising primary energy consumption. In a future energy system with less thermal production and a larger share of renewable energy from fluctuating sources such as wind power, the heating sector is increasingly expected to deliver balance and energy storage services.

The share of district heating will continue to increase

In Denmark, it is anticipated that district heating’s share of total heat consumption will continue to increase. At the same time, the production will mainly be based on renewable energy sources in the future. This creates a number of challenges, which need to be addressed in the existing heat planning.

Interaction with the electricity market

In cooperation with the Danish District Heating Association, Ea has carried out projects focusing on the interaction between district heating and the electricity market under various framework conditions. In particular, these studies have focused on how district heating can contribute to achieving goals related to CO2 emission reductions, energy savings and renewable energy in the future energy system. We have assisted various heating companies in finding methods to reduce CO2 emissions, for example through the use of biomass and heat pumps.

Regulation models

Ea Energy Analyses undertook an analysis of the possible regulation models for the district heating sector, which examined advantages and disadvantages of the various regulation forms in relation to the challenges that the district heating sector is facing today. Ea Energy Analyses is also taking part in the development of a new RD&D strategy for the district heating sector.

Heat pumps

To meet the ambitious Danish climate targets of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 70% in 2030 and becoming climate neutral by 2050 at the latest, there needs to be a significant reduction in the use of fossil fuels for heating. It is the expectation that heat pump solutions, together with district heating, will play a crucial part. Heat pumps can potentially add flexibility to the energy system and contribute to integrating solar PV and wind power.

When considering space heating, a change to district heating or individual heat pumps are considered the primary solutions to replace the gas boilers still present in many homes.


Since 2007, Ea Energy Analyses has assisted the load dispatch unit (Varmelast.dk) in the greater Copenhagen area. Using Ea’s tool, the load dispatch unit daily generates plans for the production of heat in Copenhagen, taking into consideration the local distribution system.

On going

The list of projects below illustrates the types of projects we are working on.

Load dispatch of district heating production in the Greater Copenhagen area

The district heating companies CTR, HOFOR and VEKS run a common load dispatch unit (Varmelast.dk), which takes care of the daily heat planning of operations and ensure that load..

On going

Joint solutions for heating in Allerød Municipality

Allerød Municipality has a goal of having a fossil free heat sector by 2035. As there is a number of areas in the municipality, which are not covered..

31 March 2024

Heat production tool for Frederiksberg Forsyning

The heat production companies CTR, HOFOR, and VEKS are running the joint load dispatch unit Varmelast.dk, which takes care of the daily heat planning and ensures that the..

31 January 2024

Development of load dispatch tool for ARC

Ea is developing an IT tool, named “Varmelastværktøj”, with integration of the existing models and systems at ARC (waste disposal company in Copenhagen), as well as development of..

31 December 2023

Demonstration of pit thermal energy storage

In the FLEX_TES project a 70,000 m3 pit thermal energy storage (PTES) will be demonstrated in a new function as accumulation tank in a district heating system with..

31 December 2023

Completed projects

The list of projects below illustrates the types of projects we have been working on.


Assessment of contracts for reduction or disruption of gas flow

In previous winters, the Danish TSO Energinet paid companies for the right to shut off or reduce their gas flow for a period of time, as a precaution..

30 June 2023

Scenarios for district heating in the capital area

In 2012, Copenhagen Municipality published the climate plan KBH 2025, which shows the direction for reductions of carbon emissions in Copenhagen, with a goal of having the city..

30 November 2023

The Danish wood pellet market in 2022

On behalf of the Danish Energy Agency, Ea Energy Analyses has mapped the total demand and supply of wood pellets to the Danish market in 2022. This is..

30 November 2023

Seminar on district heating for the Danish Utility Regulator

In March 2023 Ea Energy Analyses taught a seminar for the Danish Utility Regulator, covering a number of themes on district heating. The purpose of the course was..

31 March 2023

Support for development of heat plan

At a national level, the political ambition is to phase out gas for indoor space heating by 2035. Today, individual gas boilers cover almost 80% of the heating..

28 February 2023

Communal, local heating solutions for Rudersdal and Hørsholm

The municipalities of Hørsholm and Rudersdal have, along with the neighbouring municipalities of Fredensborg and Helsingør, participated in a project with a goal of a fossil free heating..

14 April 2023


Accelerated phase-out of gas for space heating

Ea Energy Analyses has carried out an analysis of how an accelerated phase-out of gas for space heating can happen. A change to district heating or individual heat..

15 August 2022

Analyses for the post 2025 climate plan for Copenhagen Municipality

In 2012, Copenhagen Municipality published the climate plan “KBH 2025”, showing the path to reduction of carbon emissions in Copenhagen with the target that the city should be..

12 August 2022

Scenarios for the district heating system in the Danish capital area in 2030

In the project Scenario analyses for the future supply of district heating in the capital area (FFH50) analyses of a series of scenarios on the development of the..

31 March 2022

Energy Country Programs and Projects, ECPP

Under the auspices of the ‘Energy Country Program and Project’, the Danish Energy Agency provides technical assistance combined with policy dialogue in promotion of renewable energy, energy efficiency,..

31 December 2022


Flexibility of individual heat pumps

To reach the ambitious Danish climate targets of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 70% in 2030 and become climate neutral by 2050 at the latest, there needs to..

31 October 2021

The future district heating production in Rønne

The board of Rønne Varme (district heating company in Rønne) has initiated a strategy process with the aim of pointing to the future of the district heating production..

31 October 2021

Analysis on alternatives to using natural gas in Fredensborg Municipality

Fredensborg Municipality has a target of having a fossil free electricity and heat supply by 2035 at the latest. This will mean decommissioning approximately 7500 individual natural gas..

15 August 2021

Optimised scenario for reduction of biomass for electricity and district heating

Since the 1990ies, a large part of the Danish electricity and heat production has been transitioned away from coal, especially to biomass and natural gas. In recent years,..

1 September 2021

Projection of electricity market prices

Ea Energy Analyses has made a projection of electricity market prices towards 2050 for the DK1 bidding zone (Western Denmark) for AffaldVarmeAarhus (Danish waste, recycling, and heating company)...

19 March 2021

An analysis of new supply for the district heating system in Nakskov

District heating company Lolland Varme, which supplies heat for about 5500 customers on West and Midlolland, currently has their district heating production based primarily on biomass. This project..

30 September 2021

The district heating customers of the future in the capital area

The project “Future district heating supply in the capital area 2050” (FFH50) is carried out by the supply companies CTR, HOFOR, VEKS and Vestforbrænding. In the project, scenarios..

31 March 2021

Scenario analyses for the future supply of district heating in the capital area

As a part of the project “The future supply of district heating in the capital area 2050” (FFH50), Ea Energy Analyses has done calculations on scenarios for the..

1 September 2021


Reducing greenhouse gas emissions towards 2030 – possibilities and costs

Ea Energy Analyses has assisted the climate partnership for the energy and supply sector with an analysis of several initiatives for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Denmark towards..

31 March 2020

Use of surplus heat from data centre in Høje Taastrup

This project was about setting up a heat pump system connected to a future data centre in Høje Taastrup. The heat pump would be using surplus heat generated..

31 December 2020

Climate plan Helsingør Municipality 2045

During 2018 and 2019, Ea Energy Analyses assisted Helsingør Municipality in developing an action and climate plan for the municipality towards 2030, based on a wish for a..

18 March 2020

Economic and technical assistance for smaller Danish CHP plants

With the expiry of the economic support by the end of 2018, many district heating plants in Denmark experienced a significant price increase, unless other initiatives were taken..

31 January 2020

Balmorel support for think tank Grøn Energi

In the project “Energy Supply 2030”, Ea Energy Analyses supported the think tank Grøn Energi in the use of the Balmorel model for various analyses of investments in..

3 March 2020

Roadmap for electrification in Denmark

Electrification is increasingly seen as a crucial prerequisite for achieving the Danish climate ambitions of at least 55% renewable energy in 2030 and independence of fossil fuels in..

29 February 2020

Nordic Clean Energy Progress

The five Nordic countries – Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden – have some of the most ambitious energy and climate policies in the world. Despite this, achieving..

19 June 2020


Consequences of consumer-binding in district heating

In Denmark, the production of district heating is split between more than 400 distribution companies that deliver district heating to around 64% of Danish households. The government wishes..

31 January 2019

Fjernvarme Fyn Scenario Analysis

Fjernvarme Fyn has prepared a scenario analysis for phasing out coal on block 7 at Fynsværket power plant in Odense. Ea Energy Analyses contributed with scenario calculations for..

19 November 2019

Case studies of investments in district heating

As a consequence of the Energy Agreement of 2018 and the government’s strategy of supply, the Danish Energy Agency (DEA) has carried out a series of analyses on..

31 July 2019

Support for district heating analyses

As a consequence of the Danish government’s energy agreement from June 2018, the Danish Energy Agency (DEA) carried out a wide-ranging analysis of the consequences of changes to..

31 October 2019

Strategic energy plan for Egedal Municipality

Ea Energy Analyses has aided Egedal Municipality in developing a strategic energy plan. Ea specifically helped with analysing the economics of district heating development compared to individual solutions..

20 December 2019

Data for Individual Heating technology catalogue

In this project, Ea Energy Analyses supported Energinet in updating the methodology/guidance in the technology catalogue for individual heating, ‘Technology Data for Individual Heating Installations’. The technology catalogue..

30 August 2019


Scenario analysis of investment strategy for Fjernvarme Fyn

The distribution of district heating in the Odense area is today mainly based on heat production from four production units. One of these is Blok 7 at Fynsværket,..

31 August 2018


Analyses of renewable energy targets for 2030

Ea Energy Analyses did an analysis for The Danish Council on Climate Change on how future goals for renewable energy can be met at lowest cost. The study..

30 November 2017

Optimising urban planning with energy models

Urban planners are more and more involved in minimising the energy and climate impact of the municipal development. The objective of this project was to develop an open..

31 March 2017

Energy supply in the Capital Region of Denmark – investments overlook

In 2015 the Capital Region of Denmark and the municipalities in the region agreed on a joint energy vision, with focus on phasing out fossil fuels in the..

30 December 2017

Analysis of the competition in the district heating sector

Ea Energy Analyses carried out an analysis of the competition in the district heating sector for the Danish Energy Agency, in cooperation with Deloitte and Konveks. The analysis..

30 November 2017


District heating in Kosovo

The World Bank financed a development project aimed at assisting the authorities in Kosovo in developing their energy sector. As a part of this project, and in cooperation..

30 June 2016

Energy supply 2030

Denmark has a goal of 100% sustainable energy in 2050, and district heating can play an important part in meeting this goal. The report “Energiforsyning 2030” (energy supply..

30 November 2016


Integration of geothermal heat in district heating systems

In corporation with the Geothermal Company of the Danish District Heating Association and COWI, Ea Energy Analyses carried out a project analysing the potential for exploiting geothermal heat..

30 September 2015

Analyses of regional district heating system development

Many municipalities in Region Zealand and The Capital Region of Denmark work with strategic energy planning and since the energy systems in the municipalities are closely related, there..

31 December 2015

District heating in Odense

The district heating system in Odense is the third largest in Denmark and is today supplied with heat from different sources. Fynsværket CHP delivers district heating with one..

30 April 2015

Heating storage facility in Høje Taastrup

Heat Plan Greater Copenhagen 3 showed that an increase in the heating storage capacity would be both technically and economically sound. Presently, the district heating system of the..

31 October 2015


Heat Plan Greater Copenhagen

The heating companies in Copenhagen, CTR, HOFOR and VEKS has carried out the third phase of Heat Plan Greater Copenhagen. During the project the development of the heating..

31 October 2014

Third party access to the district heating system in Lithuania

In cooperation with Law Firm GLIMSTEDT Bernotas & Partners, Ea Energy Analyses was developing and implementing a set of terms and conditions of use of heat transmission networks..

31 July 2014

The role of district heating in the future Danish energy system

It was decided to conduct a series of analyses of the Danish energy sector, as a part of the political agreement on Danish Energy Policy towards 2020 from..

31 May 2014


The future district heating supply in the area of TVIS

Ea Energy Analyses has been assessing the future heat production for the owner municipalities of TVIS, Vejle, Fredericia, Middelfart and Kolding. This includes an investigation of options for..

31 March 2013


Emission factors for electricity and district heating

As part of their planning, Copenhagen Energy (now HOFOR) is undertaking socio-economic and environmental assessments of various supply alternatives. This, among other things, applies to evaluation of new..

30 April 2012

Operational Strategy for Køge CHP

VEKS took over Køge CHP Plant from DONG Energy on 1st of May 2012. The plant consists of two units, KKV7 and KKV8. KKV7 has been out of..

30 June 2012


Workshop on regulation of district heating

On February 4, 2011, Ea Energy Analyses hosted a workshop for a number of governmental bodies and industry players in the field of district heating. Discussions focused on..

28 February 2011

Heat storage in Nordhavn

In cooperation with Copenhagen Energy (now HOFOR), COWI and Ea Energy Analyses have investigated the value of establishing a large heat storage in the northern part of Copenhagen..

30 April 2011

Heat Plan Greater Copenhagen 2

The three major heating companies in Copenhagen, VEKS, Copenhagen Energy (now HOFOR) and the Metropolitan Copenhagen Heating Transmission company (known as CTR), has completed a  common project, Heat..

30 September 2011

Business case for biomass-fired CHP plant

In the autumn of 2010, Copenhagen Energy (now HOFOR) initiated an analysis of the possibilities of establishing a CHP plant to replace heat production from old heat production..

1 April 2011

Regulatory models for the district heating sector

In February 2011, representatives from the district heating sector, the electricity sector, regulators and consultants gathered to discuss challenges for the district heating sector and future regulation in..

31 December 2011

Interaction between wind turbines and heat pumps

Ea Energy Analyses and COWI in cooperation with Copenhagen Energy (now HOFOR) have carried out an analysis of the value of large heat pumps in interaction with wind..

30 November 2011

An RD&D strategy for district heating

Together with Danish Development Center for District Energy, Aalborg University and Ramboll, Ea Energy Analyses has been taking part in a projects aiming to draw up a new..

31 December 2011


Environmental alternatives for district heating in Aarhus

The City of Aarhus wants to achieve carbon neutrality by 2030. The district heating in Aarhus accounts for 18 per cent of the aggregated CO2 emissions and the..

28 February 2010

Analysis of the possibilities of achieving carbon-neutral district heating from CTR in 2025

CTR, the Metropolitan Copenhagen Heating Transmission Company, has commissioned Ea Energy Analyses to make an assessment of the technical opportunities and the economic costs of reducing carbon emissions..

31 August 2010


Heat Plan Greater Copenhagen 1

In April 2008, the heating companies VEKS, Copenhagen Energy (now HOFOR) and the Metropolitan Copenhagen Heating Transmission company (known as CTR) initiated a project aimed at drawing up..

1 June 2009


Energy savings in district heating areas - possibilities and costs

On behalf of the Danish District Heating Association, Ea Energy Analyses has analysed the possibilities of realising energy savings in connection with district heating networks. A special challenge is..

31 May 2006

The future of district heating in the Greater Copenhagen area

Ea Energy Analyses has made a study of the future of district heating in the Greater Copenhagen area, including the use of waste, biomass and geothermal energy for heat..

31 May 2006