Waste, bioenergy and geothermal

Biomass for energy use

Biomass is a rapidly growing source of energy and an important greenhouse gas reduction tool for Denmark as well as the EU. Increased use of biomass is one of the primary means of reaching the EU’s goal of 20% renewable energy in 2020, and plays an important role in the Danish strategies for GHG reductions and oil independence, such as the recommendations from the Danish Climate Commission and the energy strategy proposed by the Danish Government.

The increasing interest in using biomass for energy in Europe has led to new trade patterns and emerging market structures for biomass resources, and the prices for wood biomasses in particular have been affected by the growing demand. The development has also given rise to a discussion of the long-term availability of sustainable biomass resources.

Through various projects, Ea Energy Analyses is working with utilisation of biomass for energy purposes. As such, we have analysed biomass market structures, prices, demand, resource availability and sustainability for different types of biomass resources. Ea has analysed the local and regional potentials for biomass utilisation on behalf of different Danish municipalities. Additionally, the markets for trade in wood pellets, straw and wood chips have been studied for a group of Danish heating companies.

Ea is representing Denmark in IEA Bioenergy Task 32 on Biomass Combustion. Read more about this here.

Waste to energy

Waste incineration has proved to be an efficient means of extracting energy from waste, and the Danish waste incineration sector is among the most developed. By incinerating waste, environmental problems with deposits are avoided and the energy content in the waste fractions can be utilised to produce heat and power.

In recent years, the Danish waste management sector has experienced a dramatic development. Traditionally, the organisation of the sector has been characterised by the local municipalities’ obligations to collect the waste and assign a waste incineration plant. With the EU directive on waste trade in industrial waste was liberalised within the EU. This meant that combustible industrial waste could now be imported or exported with very few boundaries. The directive has led to a debate about the organisation of the entire waste management sector in Denmark and about the relation between waste quantities and incineration capacity.

Ea Energy Analyses has carried out several projects in cooperation with key players from the Danish waste management sector. We have analysed the framework conditions for Danish waste incineration plants compared to selected countries within the EU, and in the light of this evaluated their competitiveness. In addition, we have also analysed the relation between waste quantities and the existing incineration capacity and assessed the technology options for new incineration plants. Finally, Ea has analysed the advantages and disadvantages of including the waste incineration sector in the EU Emissions Trading System.

On going

The list of projects below illustrates the types of projects we are working on.

IEA Bioenergy Task 40

Christian Bang is currently the Country Representative for Denmark in the IEA Bioenergy Task 40 for the triennium period 2022-2024. The objective of IEA Bioenergy Task 40 is..

31 March 2025

IEA Bioenergy Task 32 – Biomass Combustion

Task 32 is an international forum under the IEA Bioenergy Technology Collaboration Programme for knowledge sharing and discussion of the developments in combustion and co-firing with biomass. Representatives..

31 March 2025

BECCUS inter-task project

IEA Bioenergy is an organisation working to promote cooperation and information exchange on bioenergy research between member countries. The work is divided into different tasks, each covering a..

31 December 2024

Completed projects

The list of projects below illustrates the types of projects we have been working on.


Analysis of the socio-economic effects of biochar

Ea Energy Analyses has looked at the potential costs and benefits of carbon storage with the use of biochar in agriculture. Biochar is produced by pyrolysis of biomass..

31 January 2024


The Danish wood pellet market in 2022

On behalf of the Danish Energy Agency, Ea Energy Analyses has mapped the total demand and supply of wood pellets to the Danish market in 2022. This is..

30 November 2023

Update of the technology catalogue for biogas

The Danish Energy Agency publishes technology catalogues with key data for the technologies that have a central role in the green transition, including biogas production and upgrading. In..

28 April 2023


Biogas analysis for Greenpeace

Greenpeace Nordic has a goal of getting a marked reduction in the number of cattle and pigs in the agricultural industry. Therefore, they asked Ea Energy Analyses to..

1 July 2022

Biomass statistics for 2021

For use in the preliminary and final 2021 annual energy statistics done by the Danish Energy Agency, Ea Energy Analyses estimated the consumption and import of solid biofuels..

31 October 2022

The future energy production at Aarhus ReWater

Historically, the wastewater treatment in Aarhus has taken place on a number of smaller plants, but to optimise the wastewater structure in the Aarhus area, it has been..

29 September 2022

Scenarios for the district heating system in the Danish capital area in 2030

In the project Scenario analyses for the future supply of district heating in the capital area (FFH50) analyses of a series of scenarios on the development of the..

31 March 2022

Assessment of Lombok Biomass Energy Project

PEM Consult and Ea Energy Analyses assisted DSIF (Danida Sustainable Infrastructure Finance) in assessing whether a biomass project on the Indonesian island of Lombok was eligible for DSIF..

12 August 2022


Mapping the Danish wood pellet market in 2020

On behalf of the Danish Energy Agency, Ea Energy Analyses has mapped the total supply of wood pellets to the Danish market in 2020. A similar study was..

1 December 2021

Optimised scenario for reduction of biomass for electricity and district heating

Since the 1990ies, a large part of the Danish electricity and heat production has been transitioned away from coal, especially to biomass and natural gas. In recent years,..

1 September 2021

Economic analysis of the SkyClean technology

Stiesdal Fuel Technologies develops the so-called SkyClean technology. This technology consists of heating up biomass in a reactor, for instance straw pellets, to 500-600 degrees, whereby a conversion..

31 January 2021

Projection of electricity market prices

Ea Energy Analyses has made a projection of electricity market prices towards 2050 for the DK1 bidding zone (Western Denmark) for AffaldVarmeAarhus (Danish waste, recycling, and heating company)...

19 March 2021

An analysis of new supply for the district heating system in Nakskov

District heating company Lolland Varme, which supplies heat for about 5500 customers on West and Midlolland, currently has their district heating production based primarily on biomass. This project..

30 September 2021


Plan for adjustment of the waste incineration capacity in Denmark

In December 2020, KL, the Danish national association of municipalities, published a plan for adjusting the Danish waste incineration capacity, by shutting down 30% of the capacity during..

31 December 2020

Alternatives to biomass in the electricity and heat supply

In this project, Ea Energy Analyses investigated the potential for new technologies in the electricity and district heating sectors. The analysis had three main parts An overview of..

31 October 2020

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions towards 2030 – possibilities and costs

Ea Energy Analyses has assisted the climate partnership for the energy and supply sector with an analysis of several initiatives for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Denmark towards..

31 March 2020

Biomass statistics for 2019

In this project, Ea Energy Analyses estimated the development in Denmark’s consumption of firewood, straw, wood chips, wood waste and wood pellets outside the supply sector, as well..

30 November 2020

Assessment of conversion of power plant from coal to biomass

In this project, Ea Energy Analyses has aided DSIF (Danida Sustainable Infrastructure Finance) in assessing the conversion of an Indonesian power plant from running on coal to running..

29 February 2020

Wastewater heat pumps in Aarhus

In the district heating sector, electrically powered heat pumps are expected to play a significant role in the coming decades. The economy of heat pump solutions has improved..

31 January 2020

Nordic Clean Energy Progress

The five Nordic countries – Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden – have some of the most ambitious energy and climate policies in the world. Despite this, achieving..

19 June 2020


Mapping the Danish wood pellet market in 2018

Ea Energy Analyses has carried out a wood pellet survey of the total supply of wood pellets to the Danish market in 2018, on behalf of the Danish..

31 October 2019

Biogas for heavy transport

In this project, Ea Energy Analyses carried out an evaluation of the options for, and consequences of, putting vans and lorries fuelled by biogas and diesel on equal..

5 July 2019

Waste overview and analysis for the Greater Copenhagen area

In this project, Ea Energy Analyses carried out an analysis of the waste area on behalf of HOFOR (the utility company for the capital). In the district heating..

15 October 2019

The future for thermal bioenergy plants (IEA Bioenergy Task 32)

In 2017, IEA Bioenergy conducted a survey to assess the topics of interest for the next triennium. Among the 358 unique respondents, “Bioenergy in future energy systems/system analysis”..

31 March 2019

IEA Bioenergy Forum – Thermal gasification of biomass and waste

Ea Energy Analyses was appointed as the Danish country representative for IEA Bioenergy Task 33 – Thermal gasification of Biomass and Waste for the three-year period 2016-2018. IEA..

31 March 2019

Co-firing biomass on large coal-fired power plants

Under the framework agreement with the Danish Energy Agency, this project gathered and transfered technical and regulatory experiences with co-combustion of solid biomass with coal in large utilities..

31 January 2019

Data for Individual Heating technology catalogue

In this project, Ea Energy Analyses supported Energinet in updating the methodology/guidance in the technology catalogue for individual heating, ‘Technology Data for Individual Heating Installations’. The technology catalogue..

30 August 2019


Solrød Biogas: Increasing heat production

The biogas plant in Solrød south of Copenhagen was commissioned in 2015. It produces biogas based on livestock manure, industrial waste from, among others, the nearby CP Kelco..

31 March 2018

RD&D strategy for thermal gasification

Thermal gasification can become an important part of the future energy system. Ea Energy Analyses has, on behalf of the Danish Partnership for Thermal Gasification, collected input from..

30 June 2018

Pre-feasibility Study of a Biomass Power Plant Project in Java

In order to meet rising electricity demand, Indonesia has plans to increase its power generation capacity significantly in the coming years. Indonesia and Denmark are cooperating through an..

31 January 2018

IEA Bioenergy Forum – Thermal gasification of biomass and waste

IEA Bioenergy Task 33 is an international forum to discuss and share knowledge on thermal gasification of biomass and waste, where representatives from Austria, Italy, Germany, Norway, Sweden,..

1 January 2018

Technology Catalogue for biogas and thermal gasification

Ea Energy Analyses updated, adjusted and delivered additional data and chapters on biogas and thermal gasification to the Danish technology catalogue “Technology Data for Energy Plants Generation of..

31 March 2018

Biomass import and consumption in Denmark in 2017

Ea Energy Analyses helps the Danish Energy Agency annually with input to the annual energy statistics. For 2017, Ea has estimated the trend in Denmark’s consumption of straw,..

30 November 2018

National Biomass Heat Supply Development Strategy for China

The project aimed to develop a biomass heat supply strategy for China. The project was funded by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and was conducted in collaboration between..

31 August 2018


Mapping the Danish wood pellet market in 2016

Ea Energy Analyses has carried out a wood pellet survey of the total supply of wood pellets to the Danish market in 2016, on behalf of the Danish..

31 December 2017

Forward prices for fossil fuels and biomass

Based on a methodology developed by Ea Energy Analyses, the Danish Energy Agency utilises energy commodity forwards and future prices in combination with long-term price forecasts to arrive..

30 November 2017

Energy supply in the Capital Region of Denmark – investments overlook

In 2015 the Capital Region of Denmark and the municipalities in the region agreed on a joint energy vision, with focus on phasing out fossil fuels in the..

30 December 2017

Northern Europe waste outlook

On behalf of a confidential client, Ea undertook a study of the Northern European waste markets and waste flows (with focus on the UK and the Netherlands) in..

31 October 2017

Strategy for Køge Biomass CHP

In 2012 VEKS acquired an older 100 MW-input biomass CHP plant from DONG Energy (now Ørsted). The plant needed substantial refurbishment and other investments, in order to run..

30 November 2017

Study of the wood chip market in Denmark

On behalf of a confidential client, Ea undertook a detailed analysis of the market for wood chips in Denmark with a focus on regional price differences and logistic..

30 June 2017


Updated biomass prices

Ea Energy Analyses has twice previously provided the Danish Energy Agency (Energistyrelsen) with long-term price forecasts for biomass (wood pellets, wood chips and straw), with the most recent..

30 November 2016

Firewood consumption in Denmark in 2015

Every other year the consumption of firewood in Denmark is estimated by the Danish Energy Agency (DEA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The survey provides input to..

30 November 2016

Value of waste incineration in the Danish energy system

Waste incineration is a significant part of the production of district heating in Denmark, and the regulation for waste incineration is changing. EU is now allowing international trade..

30 April 2016

Biogas and other renewable fuels for heavy transport

The government’s long-term goal is that Denmark must be independent of fossil fuels by 2050. The report “Energy Scenarios to 2020, 2035 and 2050” presented four possible options..

31 December 2016


Integration of geothermal heat in district heating systems

In corporation with the Geothermal Company of the Danish District Heating Association and COWI, Ea Energy Analyses carried out a project analysing the potential for exploiting geothermal heat..

30 September 2015


Biomass plan for the municipality of Favrskov

Ea Energy Analyses has carried out a plan to increase production and use of biomass for the municipality of Favrskov. The focus was on existing types of biomass..

31 August 2014

The Socioeconomic value of importing waste

Ea Energy Analyses has analysed the socioeconomic consequences associated with importing waste to fill unused capacity in Denmark’s existing waste incineration plants. The analyses compares different scenarios with..

30 May 2014

Adapting the capacity for waste incineration

In the resource strategy “Denmark without waste” from November 2013, the Danish government have proposed to increase the degree to which waste gets recycled and to modernise the..

30 April 2014

Sourcing of wood chips to Amager Bio4

HOFOR (in English, Greater Copenhagen Utility) will be commissioning a new block at its Amager power plant, Amagerværket block 4, which will use sustainable wood chips in a..

31 December 2014

Biomass prices at places of consumption

On behalf of the Danish Energy Agency, Ea Energy Analyses has analysed the development of biomass prices at the place of consumption. As a part of the assignment,..

30 September 2014


Analysis and projections of biomass fuel prices

In association with the Technical University of Denmark, Ea Energy Analyses carried out a study for the Danish Energy Agency (DEA), which is part of the DEA’s periodic..

31 July 2013

Biogas Task Force

In connection with the Danish Energy Agreement of March 2012, it was agreed to establish a Biogas Task Force, whose purpose was to follow up on the objective..

28 February 2013

New biomass-fired cogeneration plant on Amager

In 2010-2011 Københavns Energi (KE) (now HOFOR) conducted the first phase of an analysis investigating the possibility of establishing a new effective biomass-fired power plant on Amager. The..

31 August 2013

Green value of biogas

Ea Energy Analyses has carried out an investigation of future willingness-to-pay (WTP) for biomethane certificates in Denmark. The investigation is based on a general analysis of voluntary willingness..

31 August 2013


Biomass plan of action for Randers, Norddjurs and Syddjurs municipalities

The Danish part of the EU financed ENERCOAST project is lead by Agro Business Park/INBIOM and is based on the biomass potential in Region Midtjylland (administrative region in..

31 August 2012

Mali: Renewable energy resources

Ea Energy Analyses has together with Risø-DTU, Mali Folkecenter Nyetaa and DNE/CNESOLER been participating in a preliminary study on the possibilities of establishing a biomass CHP plant based..

30 November 2012

Biogas – analysis and overview

Ea Energy Analyses has assisted Energinet.dk in analysing how biogas best can be integrated into the cohesive energy system from a socioeconomic perspective, and identified possible improvements of..

31 May 2012

Electrolysis by means of SOEC

Ea participates in four projects about electrolysis by means of “solid oxide electrolyser cells”. By using electrolysis, inexpensive electricity can be used to convert e.g. biogas or CO2 and..

30 June 2012

Biogas from domestic waste - Screening of technologies for biological gasification of domestic waste

In May 2012 the City of Copenhagen presented a draft for a Climate Action Plan, whereby Copenhagen is expected to become the world’s first CO2-neutral capital by 2025...

31 July 2012


Update of socio-economic fuel prices

The Danish Energy Agency periodically publishes guidelines and assumptions for socio-economic analyses within the energy field. For the edition of assumptions for socio-economic analyses within the energy field..

31 March 2011

Business case for biomass-fired CHP plant

In the autumn of 2010, Copenhagen Energy (now HOFOR) initiated an analysis of the possibilities of establishing a CHP plant to replace heat production from old heat production..

1 April 2011

Biomass for heat and power production - an analysis of market structures

On behalf of Copenhagen Energy and District heating Fyn, Ea Energy Analyses undertook  an analysis of the market structures for the trading of biomass. The analysis contained an..

1 January 2011

Analysis of new waste treatment plant in Hjørring, northern Jutland

The waste treatment company, AVV, that handles waste from the municipalities of Hjørring and Brønderslev (northern Jutland) is planning to establish new waste combustion capacity to replace existing..

31 May 2011

Strategy for waste incineration in relation to the EU Emission Trading Scheme

In 2010, Ea Energy Analyses made an assessment for waste denmark and RenoSam of the advantages and drawbacks of including the Danish waste incineration sector in the EU’s..

31 October 2011


Analysis of the possibilities of achieving carbon-neutral district heating from CTR in 2025

CTR, the Metropolitan Copenhagen Heating Transmission Company, has commissioned Ea Energy Analyses to make an assessment of the technical opportunities and the economic costs of reducing carbon emissions..

31 August 2010

The competitiveness of Danish waste incineration plants

Ea Energy Analyses has assessed the framework conditions for Danish waste incineration plants compared with selected countries within the European Union. The purpose of the project is to..

31 July 2010

Analysis of the market for bioenergy – locally and internationally

Ea Energy Analyses carried out an analysis of the markets for selected biomass resources and evaluated the consequences of the market development for utilisation on a local level..

30 September 2010

Biomass in Randers, Norddjurs and Syddjurs municipalities – an analysis of supply chains

Ea Energy Analyses has carried out supply chain analyses of selected biomass resources and evaluated the possibilities of increased production and utilisation of biomass in the municipalities of..

31 July 2010

Paths to a fossil free energy supply

An analysis performed by Ea Energy Analyses for DONG Energy and Vestas Wind Systems showed how the development of the energy supply in Denmark and the neighbouring regions..

30 September 2010


Socio-economics related to the production of 2nd generation bioethanol

Ea Energy Analyses has prepared a report on the socio-economic aspects related to the production of 2nd generation bioethanol. The project was carried out for Partnerskabet for Biobrændstoffer..

30 November 2009


The total cost of electricity generation

In 2006, Ea Energy Analyses carried out a project on “The total cost of electricity generation” for the Association of Danish Energy Companies. The project analysed total generation..

31 December 2006